Luther explicating his understanding of worthiness in regard to receiving the sacrament came in March of 1521 when he wrote a “Sermon on the Worthy Reception of the Sacrament.”[ix] He began by stating that those who are living openly in sin shall not receive the sacrament.[x] He then proceeded to the two main points in his sermon (to which he returns throughout): 1) No one should come to the sacrament because he feels compelled to by law or command; 2) Only he or she who feels a great hunger and thirst for God’s grace should come to the sacrament.

Hunger and thirst, not compulsion, are necessary for a worthy reception of the body and blood of Christ. “There must be hunger and thirst for this food and drink; otherwise harm is sure to follow.”[xi] The beginning of such hunger leading to a worthy reception is “[t]o know and understand your sin and to be willing to get rid of such vice and evil and to long to become pure, modest, gentle, mild, humble, believing, loving, etc.”[xii]

Those who trust in their own worthiness should avoid coming to the sacrament. Here Luther combines a rejection of a false humility when approaching the sacrament with faith in Christ’s words. The focus is shifted away from the worthiness of the believer and instead to that which he believes: Christ and his words, most notably his words instituting the sacrament. “[E]very Christian should have these words close to himself and put his mind on them above all others.”[xiii] This is an obvious echo of Luther’s understanding of faith itself, here applied to a worthy reception of the sacrament of the altar, which centers a person’s gravity away from herself and on to another, namely Christ.

Luther is adamant that in order to receive the sacrament worthily we should never rely upon our own diligence or effort, work or prayers, fasting or other outward preparations, but instead should rely solely upon “the truth of the divine words.”[xiv] When we are driven to our own purity we are led down the wrong path, made shy and timid, and the sacrament is reduced from being a sweet and blessed thing to a “frightful and hazardous act.”[xv] Luther quips, “If you do not want to come to the sacrament until you are perfectly clean and whole, it would be better for you to remain away entirely,”[xvi] words echoed in his Large Catechism: “If you choose to fix your eye on how good and pure you are, to wait until nothing torments you, you will never go.”[xvii] Instead of a misguided purity, what is necessary is trust in the perfection of God’s righteousness, not our own.

Luther concludes his sermon by writing that “[t]he only question is whether you thoroughly recognize and feel your labor and your burden and that you yourself fervently desire to be relieved of these. Then you are indeed worthy of the sacrament. If you believe, the sacrament gives you everything you need.”[xviii] One should not commune in either open sin or under compulsion, but instead a worthy recipient of our Lord’s body and blood in the sacrament is that person burdened by their sin and hungering for God’s grace. In other words: the worthy recipient is that person who clings to Christ alone with faith alone.

Martin H. Kamaidan

Saved by Grace


  1. It’s important to note that these are general guidelines, and practices can vary among individual congregations and communities within each denomination. Additionally, personal beliefs and convictions about Communion may differ among individuals within the same denomination.

  2. The question of who is worthy to take Holy Communion, also known as the Eucharist or the Lord’s Supper, varies among Christian denominations. Different Christian traditions have different beliefs and practices regarding the eligibility and worthiness of individuals to partake in this sacrament.

  3. In the Roman Catholic Church, the doctrine of transubstantiation teaches that during the Eucharist, the bread and wine become the actual body and blood of Jesus Christ. Catholics believe that those in a state of grace (having confessed and repented of serious sins) are worthy to receive the Eucharist. Catholics typically go through the sacrament of Confession (also known as Reconciliation) before partaking in the Eucharist if they have committed grave sins.

  4. It’s important to note that these are general guidelines, and specific practices can vary within each denomination. Additionally, personal beliefs and interpretations may differ among individual congregations and members. If you are unsure about the practices of a specific church or denomination, it’s recommended to consult with a pastor, priest, or church leader for guidance.

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